მაგდალენა კატანა მენდესი

ოპოლეს უნივერსიტეტი (პოლონეთი), პოლიტიკურ მეცნიერებათა და ადმინისტრირების ინსტიტუტის დოქტორანტი,

ხელმძღვანელი – პროფ. ნატალია ანტონიუკი

 

დიდი ბრიტანეთის კრეატიული ქალაქები – იდეა და პრაქტიკული განზომილება

ბოლო პერიოდში შევამჩნიეთ, რომ სულ უფრო და უფრო მეტი ადამიანი სახლდება ქალაქებში. ეს ტენდენცია უცვლელად გრძელდება. დღესდღეობით მსოფლიო მოსახლეობის ნახევარზე მეტი შეიძლება დახასიათდეს როგორც ქალაქის მოსახლე და, გამოთვლების თანახმად, 21-ე საუკუნის ბოლოსთვის ეს მაჩვენებელი 90%-მდე შეიძლება გაიზარდოს. თუ მხედველობაში მივიღებთ, რომ მე-20 საუკუნის დასაწყისისთვის ამავე მოსახლეობის მხოლოდ 15% სახლობდა ქალაქში, ცხადია, რომ ურბანული ცხოვრების სტილი მომავლის წამყვანი ტრენდია.

ადრე ქალაქებს ძველი ურბანული პარადიგმის პრიზმით ვუყურებდით, როგორც ადამიანური აქტივობის დანაშაულით მოძრავ, მანქანებისგან დაბინძურებულ, არაჯანსაღ და ზედმეტად ხალხმრავალ ცენტრებს. ბოლო დროს, ეს შეიცვალა. ამ ფრიად ნეგატიური ხედვიდან გადავედით ქალაქების როლის აღიარებაზე მდგრადი განვითარების (მათ შორის) ეკონომიკური, სოციალური და ეკოლოგიური ასპექტების, კონტექსტში. ისინი აღარ მოიაზრებიან ერთგანზომილებიან საცხოვრებელ და სამუშაო ადგილებად, არამედ უფრო და უფრო დახვეწილ სტრუქტურებად გვევლინებიან თავიანთი უნიკალური იდენტობით; ისინი წარმოადგენენ, ერთი მხრივ, ადამიანური აქტივობის პროდუქტს  და, მეორე მხრივ, თავადაც აწარმოებენ, ამრავლებენ და ავრცელებენ ამ აქტივობის შედეგებს. ამგვარად ისინი ქმნიან თავისებურ თემს, კულტურულ ერთობას, რომელიც აერთიანებს მის მატერიალურ და არამატერიალურ ასპექტებს.

კაცობრიობის ისტორიაც, თუ გადავხედავთ, სწორედ ქალაქებში ჰპოვებს დასაბამს. ქალაქებმა დიდი გავლენა იქონიეს კულტურის განვითარებაზე – რეგიონალურ, ნაციონალურსა და საეrთაშორისოზეც. განცალკევებულობასა და უნიკალურობასთან ერთად, მათ წვლილი შეაქვთ გლობალურ კულტურაში. უდავოა, რომ სწორედ კულტურა აერთიანებს ადამიანური აქტივობის ყველა სფეროს და შეიძლება აღიქვას კრეატიულობის მამოძრავებელი ძალად, რომელიც  მომავალი განვითარების საყრდენია ყველა დონეზე.

გლობალიზაციის ერაში, როდესაც საწინააღმდეგო ტენდენციები ეჯახება ერთმანეთს, შეინიშნება კულტურული არეალის გაფართოების ტენდენციები, თუმცაღა, მეორე მხრივ, არსებობს მისი სპეციფიკურობის შენარჩუნების სურვილიც (ფოკუსი ადგილობრივ, მაგრამ ამავე დროს საერთაშორისო საკითხებზე). როგორც ორგანიზაციული სტრუქტურები, ქალაქები არ არიან სრულად იზოლირებულნი, არამედ  არსებობენ უფრო ფართო გარემოში და ასევე კომუნიკაცია აქვთ ერთმანეთთან. მათ აქტივობებს ესაჭიროება გამიზნული მენეჯმენტი. კულტურა მათი იდენტიფიკაციის მთავარი ფაქტორია, შესაბამისად, მას უნდა მიენიჭოს მაღალი ღირებულება ქალაქების, როგორც კულტურის გამავრცელებლების მენეჯმენტში.

კულტურული მენეჯმენტი არც ისე მარტივია. ის დიდწილად განპირობებულია ადგილობრივი ფაქტორებით და ასევე გავლენას ახდენს გარე ფაქტორებზე. ტერმინი „განვითარება“ – აღარაა მხოლოდ ისტორია, მემკვიდრეობა და მისი მატერიალური ფორმები. კულტურის მენეჯმენტი არ ნიშნავს მხოლოდ წარსულის შენარჩუნებას. გამოწვევაა მიიღო წარსული, აწმყო და მომავალი მუდმივად ცვალებად გარემოში. დღესდღეობით კულტურის პროდუქტები გახდა ეკონომიკური, სოციალური და ხანდახან პოლიტიკურიც, ჩნდება სულ უფრო მეტი ფორმა ადამიანის შემოქმედებითობის გამოსახატავად, ხოლო არსებული ფორმები განიცდიან ტრანსფორმაციას. და ისევ, სირთულეს წარმოადგენს ადგილობრივი კულტურის შენარჩუნება და განსხვავებული კულტურების ელემენტების ასიმილაცია (მიგრაცია, გლობალური კულტურის გავლენა).

ამგვარად, როგორ ვმართოთ კულტურა ქალაქში და ქალაქი კულტურის მეშვეობით? ადამიანების, ადგილებისა და სივრცეების კომბინირება გულისხმობს ინფრასტრუქტურას, მმართველობასა და ურთიერთობებს. ჩვენ ველით ამ სფეროში პრაქტიკული გამოცდილებების მქონე უფლებამოსილი პირების, სამოქალაქო საზოგადოების წევრების, ცალკეული მოსახლეებისა და მათ ჯგუფების, ბიზნესის მეპატრონეებისა და შემოქმედებითი ადამიანების მიერ შემოთავაზებულ ახალი იდეებს განსახილველად.

სფეროები:

  • მმართველობა კულტურულ სფეროში
  • კულტურა ქალაქში
  • კრეატიული ქალაქი

პანელები:

  • კულტურის ფასეულობა ქალაქის მმართველობაში
  • კულტურა ურბანული განვითარების სტრატეგიებში
  • თანამშრომლობის უფლებამოსილება – ბიზნესი (და განათლება) – სამოქალაქო საზოგადოება
  • ტურიზმი და ტურისტული გამოცდილება ქალაქში
  • ქალაქის მემკვიდრეობა – შენარჩუნება და ხელშეწყობა
  • ხელოვნება – როლი, ფორმა, ძველი და ახალი
  • შეკრული კულტურული თანაცხოვრება
  • შეკრული ქალაქი – ანტიკური და თანამედროვე არქიტექტურის ნაზავი
  • ინოვაციები კულტურის მენეჯმენტში
  • კულტურული ინვესტიციები – გარე და შიდა
  • კულტურული მარკეტი – კულტურა როგორც პროდუქტი
  • დაგეგმვა კულტურისთვის და კულტურასთან ერთად
  • კრეატიული კულტურის მენეჯმენტი – დაგეგმვა, ორგანიზება, განხორციელება და მართვა
  • კულტურა ქალაქის მარკეტინგში
  • ინდუსტრია და კულტურა ქალაქში (სამუშაო ადგილი, ტრანსპორტი, დასახლება)
  • კულტურული ადგილები და სივრცეები
  • განათლება კულტურაში და კულტურული პოლიტიკა
  • კულტურული მრავალფეროვნების მენეჯმენტი, თანამეგობრობის შექმნა, თანამეგობრობები და კულტურული ცვლილებები
  • კულტურა და დემოკრატია – ინკლუზია, ინტეგრაცია, პოლიტიკა
  • ქალაქი – კულტურული რეგიონი, სტრატეგიული კომუნიკაცია
  • ეკოლოგიური კულტურა ქალაქში.

 

Magdalena Katana Mendes

Opole University, Poland

Institute of Political Science and Administration.

PhD student

 

Creative cities in the United Kingdom – an idea and practical dimension

The case of Bristol North Somerset

The role of the city nowadays is usually recognised in the context of sustainable development including economic, social and ecological aspects. They are no longer one – dimensional entities, places just to live or work but more and more complex structures with a unique identity. As such, they are products of human activity on the one hand, and on the other hand, cities themselves cultivate, multiply and distribute results of this activity. Thus they create a unique community, a cultural whole combining both its tangible and intangible assets.

A glance at human history shows that it originated from cities. They have been highly influential in the development of culture. There is no doubt that it is the culture that unites all areas of human activity and can be seen as a driving force for creativity which supports further development at all levels.

As organisational structures cities, their activities have to be managed in a proper way. Culture as the main factor to identify them, has to be an asset of a very high value for managing cities which can be considered cultural transmitters.

            The city is a perfect place to organise human activities and cooperate to boost creativity. It is a driving force for development. Cities are not spaces of individual activities but common efforts bringing synergistic effect. A successful city is successful people (and vice-versa). The creative city seems to be able to achieve it thanks to strategic planning for urban space and managing people`s activity. In short: creative city means to plan and think creatively using human potential, encouraging people to connect their vision with local urban policies. Everyone can benefit from such inclusion – individuals and the city as a whole.

 The idea of a creative city is very popular in the United Kingdom, quite widely discussed and implemented in practice. The aim of this paper is to focus how it works in practice in the city of Bristol (North Somerset county) considered to be one of the most creative cities, recognised by UNESCO. It is an example of successful city management merging urban planning and people`s creativity. An analysis of the issue of culture management in Bristol inevitably brings to mind the words of Malcolm Miles, that “the creative city is not a socially coherent but  (…) a socially divisive city, in which culture as the arts is privileged over culture as the articulation of shared values in everyday life[1]. There is no doubt that this is the place they find their fullest expression.

Explaining the Creative City

Searching for a definition of a creative city in scientific discussion is by no means an easy task. It is obvious that there is no single understanding of the concept and therefore no common definition.

The document “Creative Economy Report 2010” states that there are four ways in which the term “creative city” has been used. They are as follows: 1. the creative city as arts and cultural infrastructure, 2. the creative city as the creative economy, 3. the creative city as synonymous with a strong creative class and 4. the creative city as a place that fosters a culture of creativity[2]. Ultimately the document describes the term as “an urban complex where cultural activities of various sorts are an integral component of the city’s economic and social functioning(…)”[3].

One on the definitions of creative city[4] describes it as “Cities that utilize new development paradigms[5], “(…) a territorial unit where economic, social, cultural and political networks develop because of favourable conditions that stimulate different forms of creativity”[6]. According to Beata Namyślak: “a creative city is one that has the ability to generate and implement new ideas, projects, innovations, and the ability to attract and retain creative/entrepreneurial people and entities from the creative sector”[7].

Finally, it is impossible to omit Charles Landry’s definition, according to which a creative city is “(…) a new method of strategic urban planning and examines how people can think, plan and act creatively in the city”[8].

            Although each of the above-presented definitions could be used in this article as a leading one, given the context in which the considerations are located, Charles Landry’s interpretation seems to be the most suitable. It is perfect to place the concept in the field of cultural management.

The essence of concept in cultural management context

The creative city has to be seen as a one of many ways to manage this form of society. “Planning” is the word indicating this managerial context. Not only is it the most important stage of the process but also strategic in character. The creative city is a part of the decision making process in a city, which involves creativity. It is a specific approach to tackle problems in a new, innovative way.

Nowadays cities, although locally situated, are participants in global competition in the very fast changing environment with brand new problems emerging more and more frequently and rather unexpectedly. They have to be agile, able to respond quickly to changes, be flexible and quick resilient if needed. This is the reason creative cities are described as using new development paradigms – using creativity.

One must say that creativity is no longer a random characteristic of single individuals, it becomes a permanent element of collective social behavior. Actually, in a creative city, creativity becomes a habit, a custom accompanying any action in every field of human activity. It becomes a lifeblood of the city[9], bringing innovation and inventions which makes it a driving force behind city’s development. David Yencken said that “(…) a creative city must (…) be one that is committed to fostering creativity among its citizens (…)”[10].

A very close and multidimensional relationship between creativity and culture leads to the conclusion that the creative city is the one with a culture of creativity and therefore culture – led development.

In the creative city, defined as above, creativity circulating around the city becoming a part of its culture, affects all areas of human activity. Each of the entities, regardless of the form, type and degree of organization, also shapes its own culture understood as a set of ideas, values, beliefs, attitudes, norms which influence people’s behaviour. All together they form a diversified, unique for every city as a whole, culture. According to D. F. Batten, this diversity is “(…) actually the only significant determinant of creative cities”[11].

In the creative city the culture becomes a tool to manage aforementioned diversity not only to minimize unavoidable inner cultural conflicts[12] but also to compete successfully in both domestic and international environments. In order to utilize the creative potential conditions for integration, empowerment, participation and inclusion should be provided (a high degree of openness).

Seeking for development, the decision – making process uses culture as a link between economy, society and politics. All of them are equally important but it is the field of economy that is the leading factor for development as the economic results determine the competitive position of the city. As Andy Pratt has noticed, creative city is “instrumental policies which seek to use ‘culture’ or ‘creativity’ to achieve specific ‘non-cultural’ ends”[13].

The culture is the most convenient tool to manage the city seeking for development. However, it is not any development but sustainable one that is at stake. It means the balance between all fields of human activity – economy, society and politics should be ensured. In the creative city the culture is a linkage between locally located economical resources (creative economy with creative industries), creative potential of society (creative class working in creative industries)[14] and creative authorities to face the challenge in an innovative way. Ultimately, the city is expected to be economically effective, flexible in a changing situation, resilient, inclusive, open to new ideas offered by creative people and their organisations and unique in terms of identity.

In this holistic approach cultural assets (as shared values, traditions, customs and ideas), actually regarded as non – economic, become valuable in terms of economy[15], while remaining cultural. In the creative city seeking for sustainable development, it is pointed out in the document Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development: Conclusions from the COST Action IS1007, the culture can be viewed as an equal to other three pillars (fourth pillar), as a mediator between spheres and as a synonym of sustainable development[16]. It is illustrated as below.

Pic. 1. Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development

Source:  J. Dessein, K.Soini, G.Fairclough and L. G. Horlings (Eds.). Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development: Conclusions from the COST Action IS1007 Investigating Cultural Sustainability. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. 2015 , p. 29.

 

One can say that  the creative city, understood as sustainable development, is a city – culture in itself or rather a city of culture which consists of diversified (sub)cultures. All range of activities must be managed which is highly challenging; demands strict voluntary cooperation between urban actors participating in the decision making process and a high degree of awareness of its final goal. Some sort of coherence is also expected. It looks like it is the ultimate, and still distant, stage of the city’s evolution that none of them has yet reached, an imaginary city[17].

Currently the concept of creative city embraces the culture rather “in” and/or “for” sustainable development. It is an approach represented by UNESCO with its Creative Cities Network (UCCN)[18]. As the UNESCO states, it was created “to promote cooperation with and among cities that have identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development”[19]. UCCN recognises seven creative fields: literature, design, crafts and folk art, film, music, media arts, gastronomy. Undoubtedly they are the most representative expression of human creativity and are the hallmarks of a unique culture of the city.

According to Charles Landry, the creative city (…) explores how we can make our cities more liveable and vital by harnessing people’s imagination and talent[20]. As a place of culture the city contributes not only to building its competitive position but they also participate in creating conditions for the further development of creativity. This is just one of the many aspects that make up the creative city in a holistic approach. The art is inclusive and integrating, a perfect instrument for the implementation of the concept.

 The idea of creative city in the United Kingdom

There is no doubt that aforementioned creative fields, strictly connected with culture, contribute to the other areas of human activity and to sustainable development in general. As they become economically valuable, they can be described as industries – creative ones. The concept of creative industries was first introduced in 1994 in Australia as a part of their new cultural policy “Creative nation”. It also stressed the economic potential of cultural activity and arts. Saying that “Culture creates wealth.(…) Culture employs. (…). Culture adds value; it makes an essential contribution to innovation, marketing and design. The level of creativity substantially determines the ability to adapt to new economic imperatives. It is a valuable export in itself and an essential accompaniment to the export of other commodities. It attracts tourists and students. It is essential to economic success.”[21].

 Usage of the term “creative industries” varies among countries[22]. It might be really confusing[23], but it is essential for the concept of a creative city in general and in the UK in particular

The creative industries definition from the UK Government’s Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is often quoted in scientific literature and widely adopted by countries in the practical implementation of the concept of creative cities. Creative industries are “those (…) which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property.’[24]. It is also described as “a range of activities, some of which are amongst the oldest in history and some of which only came into existence with the advent of digital technology.[25]

Bristol as Creative City

Bristol is the largest city in the South West of England, with a population of approximately half a million. Its area covers 110 km2. Located conveniently close to Wales, is very well connected with all parts of the United Kingdom. Bristol is characterized by ethnic, national, religious and cultural diversity. successfully combines old traditions with modernity.

Industrial in the past, now Bristol offers a variety of services. Creative industries – especially film – play a leading role in the functioning of the city. Bristol is home to Shaun the Sheep and Wallace and Gromit, stop-motion animated children’s television series, Banksy – an artist whose identity remains unknown so far and many cultural activities (film festivals, artisan markets, street art events, etc.).

Bristol is known as the city of openness fostering cultural activities in different form based on the culture strategy for the city of Bristol[26]. It is accompanied by the Bristol City Council Cultural Investment Programme Prospectus 2018-2022 (updated 2019)[27]. The document describes Bristol as “(…) a centre of culture and counter-culture (…) rich cultural diversity makes Bristol stand out – activist, contradictory, unorthodox, and independent, Bristol is highly distinctive. It is our culture which makes Bristol attractive as a destination for visitors and for businesses to set up and to stay, but it needs to be accessible to all”[28]. As the Mayor states, “Everyone in the city should benefit from the city’s rich cultural life. (…) should be able to access and participate in the arts and cultural life of the city, no matter who they are, where they are from nor what their background”[29].

The Cultural Investment Programme has been created to “provide opportunities for people and communities across the city to take part in the cultural life of Bristol (…)”. Jon Finch, Head of Culture and Heritage, says that this funding “is designed to develop Bristol’s national and international reputation as a creative cultural city, to actively advance equality and diversity and to improve people’s lives through the arts”[30].

The Cultural Investment Programme aims to “support and nurture new and emerging ideas and one-off projects as well as supporting other organisations to develop and grow over a longer period”. The beneficiaries of the program were established “all of the city’s artists, creative and cultural sector. They have been encouraged “to demonstrate their impact, be ambitious and inclusive whilst sharing their passion, skills and enthusiasm to develop the city’s arts and cultural offer in the coming years”. The aim is to support and develop the creative sector, maintain ambitions and ultimately make a positive impact on people’s lives[31]. The key aims are to: 1. Develop Bristol’s reputation as one of the UK’s leading cultural cities 2. Advance diversity and equality in arts and culture 3. Support the delivery of Bristol City Council’s Corporate Strategy[32].

There are 3 funds available through our 2018 to 2022 Cultural Investment Programme: Originators, Imagination, Openness[33]. Indicative Cultural Investment Programme Budget of £635,690 for 2021/21 is lower than before £825,690 every year since 2018[34].

Originators are for Bristol based individuals, community groups and organisations (including unincorporated organisations). They can apply for £500 – £5,000 to finance projects like “delivering a small scale arts project or community event/ festival with arts and culture focus; undertaking professional development; testing new ideas, approaches and partnerships; work with communities that will increase access to arts and culture”[35]

            Imagination offers £5,000 – £40,000 each year for 2 years. It is intended for  Bristol-based organisations with at least 6 months of accounts and proven track record to cover costs of “innovative and ambitious medium-large scale projects, programmes or events/ festivals with an arts and culture focus; undertake organisational development or support professional development within the arts and culture sector; work with communities that will increase access to arts and culture. To include evidence of sharing skills & resource with smaller organisations over funding period”[36]. The 25% match funding is required though.

            Finally the programm Openness designed for Organisations with at least 12 months of accounts and proven track record. It offers up to more than 5% of annual turnover & tapering over the duration of funding and may take up to 4 years. The money can be used for financing established arts & cultural organisations with a year round programme that support the cultural ecology, contribute to Bristol’s cultural identity and demonstrate leadership and generosity for the wider sector[37].

            Financial resources and ease of application translate into the cultural activity of Bristol, contributing to the strengthening of the city’s position in all its areas. It is easy to see when analysing Bristol’s cultural life.

            Creativity in Bristol city

            Bristol is a highly diversified place. Its cultural activity is difficult to cover in a short article. However, among this diversity there are four hallmarks of Bristol that make it famous all over the world. These are: Aardman Animation Studio, Bristol Film Festival, Banksy  and See no Evil.

            Aardman Animation [38]is known for films made using stop-motion clay animation techniques. The most famous of them are Wallace and Gromit and Shaun the Sheep. The company significantly contributes not only to the culture but also helps to involve civil society in charity actions. In 2015 120 individually designed giant Shaun statues were placed in central locations in both London and Bristol in the UK. They went to auction in October to raise funds for The Grand Appeal and Wallace & Gromit’s Children’s Charity, supporting children in hospitals across the UK[39].

Photo 1: Shaun in Thee City, The Art Trail

Source: https://www.shaunthesheep.com/news/your-guide-shaun-city-bristol

            The idea for the Festival “was born out of a combination of two key ideas: wanting to provide an alternative experience for lovers of film and cinema, and to celebrate the cultural landscape of his home city, Bristol” [40]. Bristol’s citizens can watch classic films on the big screen, in some of the city’s most iconic venues like: Bristol Museum, Brunel’s SS Great Britain, Aerospace Bristol, and Redcliffe Caves[41].

Photo:2. Bristol Film Festival Concorde Venue

 

Source: https://www.bristolfilmfestival.com/

            There is a very mystery figure of an artist who is definitely and indisputably connected with Bristol. No one knows if it is a one person or group -anyway the name is Banksy[42].Banksy is known for his original artistic work (murals) – each of them is a specific manifesto, a deeper message for the audience.

Photo 3: Well Hung Lover by Banksy

Source: https://www.blocal-travel.com/world/uk/bristol/banksy-murals-bristol/

Photo 4: Banksy’s UE flag chiselled off

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/may/07/banksy-brexit-mural-dover-eu-flag

Photo 5: The Grim Reaper

 

Source: http://www.conemagazine.com/banksys-original-grim-reaper-stays-at-the-m-shed/

            Finally it is worth mentioning See no Evil, a graffiti art event[43]. It is an art project of international standard based on Nelson Street in Bristol City centre which brings together a selection of the world’s best street artists to create a huge outdoor gallery[44].

            Photo 6:ARYZ See no Evil Bristol

Source: http://threenine-eu.blogspot.com/2011/08/aryz-see-no-evil-bristol.html

            Photo 7:Nelson Street Art

Source: https://www.travelettes.net/see-no-evil-europes-largest-street-art-event/

            Conclusions

It is not easy to manage through culture as it is strongly locally embedded, influencing and being subject to external influences. The meaning of the term evolved – it is no longer only history, heritage and its material forms. Managing culture does not mean preserving the past. The challenge is to embrace the past, present and future in a permanently changing environment. Nowadays, cultural products become economic, social and sometimes even political, there are more and more forms in which human creativity is expressed and the existing ones undergo various transformations. And again, the difficulty is to preserve local culture and assimilate elements of different ones (migration, the influence of global culture).

So, how to manage culture in the city, the city through culture and for culture? Combining people, places and spaces need some infrastructure, governance, and relationships. We are looking for discussion involving authorities, civil society actors, individual residents and their groups, business owners and artisans presenting new ideas and good  practices in this area. One of the puzzles in this riddle is the concept of creative city. Undoubtedly Bristol is one of them.

 

Bibliography

[1] M. MILES, A Post-Creative City?, 2013, abstract (online).

[2] CREATIVE ECONOMY REPORT 2010, s.13

[3] IBIDEM, s. 12

[4] IGI, Creative City, 2020 (online)

[5] TOK, MCSPARREN, AL MEREKHI, ELGHAISH, ALI, Crafting Smart Cities in the Gulf Region. 2015 (online).

[6] PETRÍKOVÁ, BORSEKOVÁ, How do Entrepreneurial Ecosystems Influence Growth and Development?, 2016 (online).

[7] NAMYŚLAK, Miasto kreatywne 2013, p.6.

[8] LANDRY, The Creative City, 2008, s. XI.

[9] IBIDEM, p. XII.

[10] YENCKEN, The creative city, 1988, p.26.

[11] BATTEN, Network Cities, 1995, p. 313-327.

[12] IGI GLOBAL, What is cultural management, 2020 (online).

[13] PRATT, Creative cities, 2008. pp. 107-117.

[14] R. Florida, Cities and creative class, City & Community 2:1, 2013.

[15] UNCTAD, Creative Industries, 2004.

[16] DESSEIN , SOINI, FAIRCLOUGH, HORLINGS (eds.). Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development, 2015 , p. 29.

[17] IBIDEM, p.29.

[18] UNESCO, Creative cities, 2020.

[19] IBIDEM,

[20] LANDRY, The Creative City, 2008, 22.

[21] CREATIVE NATION: Commonwealth cultural policy, October 1994, Department of Communications and the Arts (now Office for the Arts), 1994.

[22] UNCTAD,Creative Economy Report 2010, p..6

[23] David PARRISH, Creative Industries, 2020.

[24] Creative Industries Mapping Documents 2001.

[25] NEWBIGIN, What is the creative economy? 2020.

[26] FLEMING, City of Openness, Imagination and Originators. A Strategy for Bristol Culture

[27] BRISTOL CITY COUNCIL Cultural Investment Programme Prospectus 2018

[28] IBIDEM, p.1.

[29] IBIDEM, p.1.

[30] IBIDEM, p.1.

[31] IBIDEM, p.1

[32] IBIDEM, s.3.

[33] BRISTOL.GOV, Arts and culture funding, 2020,

[34] BRISTOL CITY COUNCIL Cultural Investment Programme Prospectus 2018, p.4.

[35] IBIDEM, p.4.

[36] IBIDEM, p.4.

[37] IBIDEM, p.4.

[38] AARDMAN, Homepage, 2020.

[39] SHAUN IN THE CITY, Event’s Homepage 2020.

[40] BRISTOL FILM FESTIVAL, Homepage, 2020, https://www.bristolfilmfestival.com/about-us

[41]IBIDEM

[42] BANKSY, Homepage, https://www.banksy.co.uk/out.asp

[43] HUFF POST, See No Evil’2020

[44] BRISTOL TEMPLE QUARTER, See no Evil, https://www.bristoltemplequarter.com/see-no-evil-2/

003942
WordPress Theme built by Shufflehound. შოთა რუსთაველის თეატრისა და კინოს სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი